After the outbreak of the new crown epidemic, prefabricated hospital buildings have become a hot topic in the industry. In response to sudden major infectious disease outbreaks, the assembly method can meet the needs of rapid construction of temporary emergency infection hospitals. Many emergency hospitals have adopted prefabricated construction technology.
To this end, Zhuyitai Information specially invited Du Zhijie, vice president of the Prefabricated Building Institute of China Building Standards Design and Research Institute, director of the Medical Building Design and Research Center, and Zhang Jianbin, the chief architect, to give a comprehensive introduction to prefabricated buildings, and focused on the introduction of prefabricated buildings. Five design points for hospital buildings.
First. The characteristics of prefabricated buildings
Second. Structural types of prefabricated buildings
Third. Evaluation of prefabricated buildings
Fourth, the design points of prefabricated hospital buildings
The characteristics of prefabricated buildings
A prefabricated building refers to a building in which the structural system, the outer protection system, the equipment and pipeline system, and the main part of the interior system are integrated with factory-produced parts. .
Prefabricated buildings emphasize standardized design, factory production, prefabricated construction, integrated decoration, information management and intelligent applications.
The hospital building needs a large space layout to adapt to the reconstruction and expansion under normal operation conditions, the real-time update of the medical process, the maintenance and replacement of the equipment pipeline, the prefabricated building can meet the requirements of the hospital building, the parts and components are produced in the factory, and the dry method is performed on site During construction, the construction period on site is short, with low noise and pollution, which can minimize the impact on normal medical work.
Prefabricated hospital buildings generally adopt large-space layout, modular combination, and standardized design, which are easy to transform medical functions. At the same time, factory mass production can reduce the cost.
The prefabricated building adopts the form of separating the equipment pipeline from the main structure, the tube well is centrally arranged, and the dry construction method is used to facilitate the repair and maintenance.
Compared with traditional cast-in-place hospital buildings, prefabricated hospital buildings have the following characteristics:
1 Standard design Standardization, modularization, generalization, large space design, less specifications and more combinations;
2 Factory production Generalized, large-scale production, good quality, standardized interface of parts and components;
3 On-site assembly On-site assembly, dry construction, short construction period, little interference, and little pollution;
4. Pipeline separation The main structure is separated from the equipment pipeline, which is convenient for quick maintenance and replacement;
5 Project management EPC integrated management, reasonable control of quality, safety, progress and cost;
6 Intelligent applications Apply Internet and Internet of Things technologies to improve management and service quality.
Structural types of prefabricated buildings
Prefabricated buildings are classified according to the structural system, mainly including prefabricated reinforced concrete buildings, prefabricated steel structure buildings, prefabricated wood structure buildings, etc.
The main structural systems of prefabricated concrete buildings include shear wall structure, frame structure, frame-shear wall structure, frame-core tube structure, etc. The prefabricated concrete structure mainly used at this stage is the prefabricated monolithic concrete structure, and its main prefabricated member connection nodes are connected in a way similar to that of the cast-in-place structure. analyze.
The load-bearing prefabricated components are prefabricated concrete structures with non-equivalent cast-in-place connection nodes such as dry connections, which are simple and convenient to install. However, their application in seismic areas, especially high-rise buildings in high-intensity seismic areas, requires further research. Work.
Steel structure buildings are widely used in industrial buildings, public buildings, commercial buildings, residential buildings and other fields. The steel structure has the advantages of light weight, high strength, good seismic resistance, flexible layout, small cross-sectional size of components, easy assembly, short construction period, high usable area, and is conducive to industrial production and standardized production. The supporting wall can be energy-saving. , environmentally friendly new materials, so it has become the key development object of my country's construction industrialization and industrialization.
The fabricated steel structure can be divided into the following structural systems: steel frame structure, steel frame-support structure (including steel frame-central support, steel frame-eccentric support and steel frame-buckling restraint support structure), steel frame-ductile wall Plate structure, cylinder structure, giant structure, staggered truss structure, portal rigid frame structure, low-rise cold-formed thin-walled steel structure, integrated modular building, etc.
Wood structure buildings are mainly used in traditional houses, residential buildings, comprehensive buildings, tourism and leisure buildings, cultural and sports buildings, temple buildings, etc., mainly buildings with three floors or less. According to the structure, domestic prefabricated wood structures can be divided into: tenon and mortise structure, well-dry wood structure, light wood structure, glulam structure, square log log structure, wood hybrid structure, wood composite structure, etc.
Among the above three structural forms, the prefabricated steel structure is more suitable for hospital buildings. The steel structure has a large span and is highly modifiable, and can provide a large variable space. The steel has high strength and the vertical member section is small, which can improve the space utilization rate. The steel has good ductility, strong energy dissipation capacity and good seismic performance. The industrialization degree of steel components is high, the transportation distance constraints are small, and the environmental impact of the construction site is small. Steel can be recycled and has a high material recovery rate, which meets the requirements of sustainable development, so it has become the key development object of my country's construction industrialization and industrialization.
Evaluation of prefabricated buildings
According to the "Evaluation Standards for Prefabricated Buildings" GB/T51129-2017 implemented by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development in February 2018, there are detailed regulations for the evaluation of prefabricated buildings:
After determining the identification standards of prefabricated buildings, it is necessary to rate the prefabricated buildings' degree of prefabrication. Referring to the "Green Building Evaluation Standards", the prefabricated buildings are evaluated as three grades: A, AA, and AAA.
When the assembly rate is 60% to 75%, it is rated as A; when the assembly rate is 76% to 90%, it is rated as AA; when the assembly rate is above 91%, it is rated as AAA;
It can be seen from the table that the maximum score for the main structure is 50 points, and the requirements for enclosure walls, internal partition walls, equipment pipelines and full decoration account for 50 points, indicating that in addition to the prefabrication requirements of the main structure, other systems also have corresponding requirements.
The design points of prefabricated hospital buildings
1 Structural system
Steel structure is a very suitable structural form for hospital buildings, so this article mainly discusses the technical points of steel structure suitable for hospital buildings.
The structural system should be selected according to the building function, building height and seismic fortification intensity. Hospitals are generally in the form of steel frame structures. In general, the pure steel structure system is difficult to meet the displacement ratio within the design requirements, so it is necessary to add supports in the steel frame to increase the ability of the structure to resist lateral force. Steel frame structures can be used in multi-storey hospital buildings, and steel frame-support structure systems can be used in high-rise ward buildings.
2 Peripheral protection system
The outer protection system is composed of building exterior walls, roofs, exterior doors and windows and other parts and components, and is used to separate the whole of the parts and components that separate the indoor and outdoor environments of the building.
The outer protection system emphasizes integrated design and advocates the integration of decoration and thermal insulation materials. Systematically solve the building needs, the quality is more controllable, the building performance is guaranteed, and the building durability is improved.
The external wall system should select the appropriate system type according to different building types and structural forms; the external wall panels in the external wall system can adopt the form of embedded type, external hanging type, embedded hanging combination, etc., and should be suspended or supported in layers. The exterior wall system can choose prefabricated exterior walls, on-site skeleton exterior walls, building curtain walls and other types.
The outer protection system should comprehensively determine the requirements for wind resistance, earthquake resistance, impact resistance, fire resistance, watertightness, airtightness, sound insulation, thermal performance and durability according to the climatic conditions and use functions of the building. , the roof system should still meet the structural performance requirements.
3 Equipment and piping system
Equipment and pipeline system should adopt integrated technology, adopt standardized modular design parts, improve the integration degree of equipment and pipeline system through comprehensive design and pipeline integration, so as to achieve coordination with building, structure, and electromechanical design.
Equipment pipelines should be centrally arranged to reduce cross-conflict with medical functional areas. When the equipment pipeline is repaired, the interference to medical activities and patient rest is reduced, and the functional space is more complete and independent, providing the possibility for future functional transformation.
The equipment and pipelines should be separated from the main structure, which is convenient for maintenance and replacement, and does not affect the safety of the main structure during maintenance and replacement. Priority should be given to the use of green and environmentally friendly equipment, materials and products, and pipes and fittings that are corrosion-resistant, have long service life, good noise reduction performance, and are easy to install and replace.
4 Built-in system
At present, high resource-density building materials such as cement, aluminum and ceramics are widely used in building decoration, and about 20% of cement is used as leveling layer, binder and covering pipeline in decoration every year. When renovating and renovating, it can only be smashed together with the veneer to form non-degradable construction waste. In this manual wet operation mode, it is difficult to improve the construction quality. In addition, during the construction process, a lot of noise and dust are generated, which is unbearable. Therefore, prefabricated interiors and dry construction should be adopted to reduce the waste of environmental resources.
The interior systems used in prefabricated hospital buildings include: lightweight partition walls, integrated ceilings, overhead floors, integrated toilets, integrated furniture, integrated storage, integrated pipelines, etc. The quality of the parts produced by the factory is guaranteed, which can effectively reduce construction errors. Industrialized interior parts have certain interchangeability and versatility, and are easy to maintain, manage, repair and replace.
The partition wall of the hospital should adopt a fabricated lightweight partition wall, which can not only use the cavity of the lightweight partition wall to lay pipelines, but also facilitate the flexible transformation and use and maintenance of the later space.
The integrated ceiling has the function of functional space division and decoration, and can be designed and selected according to the interior function and the overall style of the decoration. There should be a ceiling space for laying pipelines in the ceiling, and an inspection port should be provided on the ceiling.
It is recommended to use overhead ground for the ground. The overhead space is mainly for laying various pipelines to meet the separation of the main structure from the pipeline and reduce damage to the main structure. Because of its non-wet operation and strong flexibility in construction, it is widely used in prefabricated buildings.
The medical area of the emergency infection hospital should adopt an E-shaped and Wang-shaped layout, and the staff channel can be used as the central axis for modular combination.
Wards, offices and other rooms with uniform specifications and a large number of rooms should be combined with standard modules, and special functional areas and connection parts can be spliced with lightweight boards according to on-site splicing.
The bathroom of the ward can choose the whole bathroom, and the size of the regulations is generally 1200*2000, 1500*2000, etc.
During the construction process, corresponding measures should be taken as needed to meet the requirements of anti-seepage, anti-leakage and airtightness of the main structure of the structure, and meet the requirements of sanitation and safety control. Electromechanical equipment and pipelines should be products with high integration, quick installation and easy maintenance.
Prefabricated buildings follow the sustainability principle of the whole life cycle of buildings, improve efficiency and quality through the advantages of industrial production, meet changes in demand through flexible design, pay attention to the variability of space used and the possibility of continuous renewal, and extend the life of buildings, Thereby avoiding waste of resources and reducing damage to the ecological environment.
Prefabricated buildings are a change in construction methods and an upgrade in design concepts. Establishing a building system and parts system that meets the requirements of industrialization, and building a green hospital with long life and high quality are the road to promote the sustainable development of modern hospital buildings. It is hoped that the hospital building in the future can become a complete product like a car or a smartphone, with high quality, precise and meticulous, green and efficient.
About the Author
Vice President of Prefabricated Architecture Institute of China Building Standards Design and Research Institute Co., Ltd., Director of Medical Building Design and Research Center, National First-Class Registered Architect, and Professor-level Senior Architect.
Chief Architect of China Building Standard Design and Research Institute Co., Ltd. Medical Building Design and Research Center, National First-Class Registered Architect, Registered Urban Planner, LEED AP, WELL AP.